The Nobel Prize is the world's foremost honor in recognition of cultural and/or scientific advances for activities related to chemistry, physics, physiology or medicine, literature, economics, and peace. Every year, in October, candidates who have done work of great value for the good of humanity in these areas are chosen to receive the prize in December 10, the birthday of the creator of the award, Alfred Nobel.
The history of the prize begins with Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite. After experiencing displeasure for the death and destruction caused by his invention, Nobel proposed creation of an award that would honor those who, in the future, would serve the good of humanity. He left his fortune of SEK 32 million for the creation of an institute to administer the prize, the Nobel Foundation. The first award ceremony took place in 1901 at the Royal Conservatory of Stockholm. These awards are given annually by the Royal Academy of Sciences of Sweden, Swedish Academy, Norwegian Nobel Committee, and Karolinska Institute to individuals and organizations that have contributed exceptionally in the above areas.
We reviewed the literature on persons who have won or competed for this prize in subjects related to vision and ophthalmology. The topics were divided into vision physiology, diagnostic and therapeutic methods, disease mechanism, and miscellaneous categories.